After several years of development, the Debian 10 Buster distribution was released. In this release, in addition to updating package versions, we will also see several other changes. Now the system can be downloaded in Live mode from the installation media, and in this Live mode, the ability to install using the Calamares installer has been added.
The usual Debian pseudo-graphic and graphical installer has not gone away and is available for selection at boot, and Calamares has been added for the convenience of beginners. In this article, we will see how to install Debian 10 step by step using the new Calamares installer.
The minimum system requirements for the Debian 10 graphical version are:
- RAM: 512 Mb
- Disk space: 10 GB;
- CPU: Pentium 4, 1 GHz;
- Installation media: USB or DVD.
Preparation for installation
Step 1. Download the installation image
Debian has several types of installation images. This is a Netinstall image that contains only the most necessary components, complete images containing almost everything, as well as Live images with which you can start the system without installation.
To download the full image, open the repository page and download the first disk. Full images contain a huge set of Debian packages and are needed for installation on systems with poor Internet access. There are three images, but for installation you will only need the first. I wrote about installing from a full image in the article Installing Debian 9 since then, almost nothing has changed there.
In this article, we will perform installation from a live image. To download it, open this page and select an image with the desired environment. I will use gnome.
Step 2. Record an image on a USB flash drive
To write an image to a USB flash drive, you can use the utility Etcher, both in Windows and in Linux, you just select the image, then select the USB device and click Flush:
Step 3. BIOS Setup
The next step is BIOS setup, you need to restart your computer and press Del, Shift + F2, F2 or F8 to enter the BIOS setup interface. Find the Boot tab here. In the Bood Device Priority section, you must select Hard disk, and in Hard disk priority – install in the first place your flash drive:
All this works in a similar way both in the new BIOS and in the old ones, but in the new ones everything is much simpler. Debian installs perfectly on UEFI, so no additional configuration is needed.
Install Debian 10 Buster
Step 4. Choosing an installation option
As I wrote above, you have several installation options to choose from. You can boot into Live mode and install the system using Calamares or use the familiar Debian installer:
Choose the first option.
Step 5. Starting the installer
Open the main menu of the system and select the first item in the favorites panel – Calamares:
Step 6. Choosing a language
Choose the language of the future system:
Step 7. Time Zone
Choose your time zone:
Step 8. Keyboard Layout
I advise you to choose English, and then add Russian in the system, otherwise you will not be able to configure mount points, and also enter a username and password:
Step 9. Disk Partitioning
As usual, there are several markup options. You can completely erase the disk and install the system, or split the disk manually. Consider the manual option:
Step 10. Partition Table
If you have an empty disk, you need to create a partition table first. To do this, click New Partition Table.
Then select the table format, in most cases you can choose MBR, but if you are installing the system on UEFI, it is better to use a more modern GPT:
Step 11. Creating the bootloader partition
This section will store the bootloader files and the kernel of the system. To create a section, click on Available space and press the button Create. Recently, the bootloader files began to take up a lot of space, so with a margin for this section it is worth allocating at least 1024 megabytes. The file system is ext4. Then select a mount point / boot.
Step 12. The root partition
Similarly, you need to create a root partition. The mount point is /, the file system is ext4, and the size is at least 10 GB, but better than 30-50 GB, so that it is definitely enough for all system files:
Step 13. Swap Section
The swap partition should be the same as the size of RAM if you want to use hibernation mode or, if you do not want, at least half of the RAM and at least four gigabytes. Here you need to select linuxswap file system:
Step 14. Home Section
Your files, documents, videos and music will be stored here, allocate as much as you need, usually all the free space. File system – ext4, mount point – / home:
Step 15. Create a user
Enter the data for the new user on behalf of whom you will use the system:
Step 16. Confirm installation
Check if everything is configured correctly and confirm the installation:
Step 17. Installation
Wait for the Debian 10 Buster installation to complete:
Step 18. Reboot
Reboot the computer:
Step 19. Finish
You just have to select a user and enter the password that you specified during installation and log in to the system:
Now you can start using the Debian 10 Buster
In this article, we looked at how to install Debian 10 Buster on a computer. The system still needs to be configured, but it is already completely ready for use. What do you think of the new version of the system? For example, I like the new installer. Will you be updated? Write in the comments!