How To Securely Manage Secrets with HashiCorp Vault on Ubuntu 16.04


Grafana is an open-source, information visualization and monitoring device that integrates with complex information from sources like Prometheus, InfluxDB, Graphite, and ElasticSearch. Grafana enables you to produce alerts, notifications, and ad-hoc filters for the information while additionally collaboration that is making your teammates easier through integral sharing features.

In this guide, you can expect to install Grafana and secure it with an SSL certification and an reverse that is nginx, then you definitely’ll alter Grafana’s standard settings even for tighter protection.


To follow this guide, you will require:

Step 1 — Installing Grafana

You can install Grafana either by getting straight from the website that is official or going right on through an APT repository. Because an APT repository causes it to be more straightforward to install and handle Grafana’s updates, we are going to utilize that technique.

Although Grafana will come in the state Ubuntu 16.04 packages repository, the form of Grafana there may possibly not be the most recent, so we are going to utilize Grafana’s formal repository on packagecloud.

Download the packagecloud GPG key with curl, then pipe the production to apt-key. This can include the main element towards APT installation’s selection of trusted secrets, that may permit you to down load and validate the GPG-signed Grafana package.

  • curl | sudo add that is apt-key

Next, include the packagecloud repository towards APT sources.

  • sudo add-apt-repository "deb stretch main"

Note: Even though this guide is written for Ubuntu 16.04, packagecloud just provides Debian, Python, RPM, and RubyGem packages. You need to use the repository that is debian-based the previous command, though, because the Grafana package it contains is the same as the one for Ubuntu. Just be sure to use the stretch repository to get the version that is latest of Grafana.

Refresh your APT cache to improve your package listings.

And, make Grafana that is sure will set up from packagecloud repository.

The production informs you the form of Grafana which will be set up and where in actuality the package will undoubtedly be retrieved from. Verify your installation prospect can come from Grafana that is official repository

Output of apt-cache policy grafana

grafana: Installed: (none) Prospect: 4.6.2 Variation dining table: 4.6.2 500 500 stretch/main amd64 Packages ...

You is now able to continue using the installation.

  • sudo apt-get grafana that is install

Once Grafana's set up, you are willing to begin it.

  • sudo systemctl begin grafana-server

Next, verify that Grafana is operating by checking the solution's status.

  • sudo systemctl status grafana-server

The production contains details about Grafana's procedure, including its status, principal Process Identifier (PID), memory usage, and much more.

If the solution status is not active (operating), review the production and re-trace the steps that are preceding resolve the issue.

Output of grafana-server status

● grafana-server.service - Grafana example Loaded: packed (/usr/lib/systemd/system/grafana-server.service; disabled; merchant preset: enabled) Active: active (operating) since Thu 2017-12-07 12:10:33 UTC; 19s ago Docs: Principal PID: 14796 (grafana-server) Tasks: 6 Memory: 32.0M CPU: 472ms CGroup: /system.slice/grafana-server.service └─14796 /usr/sbin/grafana-server --config=/etc/grafana/grafana.ini --pidfile=/var/run/grafana/ cfg:default.paths.logs=/var/log/grafana cfg:default.paths.plugins=/var/lib/grafana/plugins ...

Lastly, enable the solution to start Grafana on automatically boot.

  • sudo systemctl permit grafana-server

The production confirms that systemd has established the required links that are symbolic autostart Grafana. If you receive an error message, follow the instructions in the terminal to fix the nagging issue before continuing.

Output of systemctl permit grafana-server

Synchronizing state of grafana-server.service with SysV init with /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install... Performing /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install enable grafana-server Produced symlink from /etc/systemd/system/ to service that is/usr/lib/systemd/system/grafana-server.

Grafana has become set up and able to be properly used. Next, secure your link with Grafana with a reverse proxy and SSL certification.

Step 2 — creating the opposite Proxy

Using an SSL certification will make sure that your information is protected by encrypting the text to and from Grafana. But, to utilize this connection, you will first must reconfigure Nginx.

Open the Nginx setup file you created once you put up the Nginx host block with let us Encrypt inside Prerequisites.

  • sudo nano*****************************) that is/etc/nginx/sites-available/(**************************)

Locate the block that is following*********)


    location / {
        # very first make an effort to provide demand as file, then
        # as directory, then fall back again to showing a 404.
        try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

Because you currently configured Nginx to communicate over SSL and because all internet
traffic towards host currently passes through Nginx, you need to tell just Nginx to forward all needs to Grafana, which operates on slot 3000 automatically.

Delete the present try_files line within location block and change it using the contents that are following which all start out with proxy_.


    location / {
        proxy_pass http://localhost:3000;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection 'upgrade';
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
        proxy_cache_bypass $http_upgrade;

Once you are done, save your self the file and shut your text editor.

Now, test the brand new settings in order to make everything that is sure configured precisely.

The production should inform you your syntax is okay which the test is prosperous. In the event that you get a mistake message, proceed with the instructions that are on-screen

Finally, trigger the modifications by reloading Nginx.

  • sudo systemctl reload nginx

You is now able to access the standard Grafana login display screen by pointing your online web browser to Then re-trace the previous instructions.( if you're unable to reach Grafana, verify that your firewall is set to allow traffic on port 443 and*********)

With the text to Grafana encrypted, now you can implement security that is additional, beginning with changing Grafana's standard administrative qualifications.

Step 3 — Upgrading Qualifications

Because every Grafana installation makes use of the exact same login that is administrative automatically, within action, you will upgrade the qualifications to boost protection.

Start by navigating to from your own browser. This can bring the default login screen up in which you will see the Grafana logo design, a questionnaire asking to enter a User and Password, a Log in key, and a Forgot your password? website link.

Grafana Login

Enter admin into the User and Password industries and click the Log in key.

On the screen that is next you will be welcomed towards Home Dashboard. Right here you could add information sources and produce, preview, and alter dashboards.

Click regarding the little Grafana logo design inside top, left-hand part associated with display screen to create the application up's main menu. Then, hover over the admin button with your mouse to open up a set that is secondary of choices. Finally, click the Profile key.

Grafana menu

You're now regarding the User Profile web page, where you could replace the Name, Email, and Username connected with your account. You can improve your Preferences for settings just like the Uwe Theme, and you will improve your password.

Grafana profile preferences

Enter your title, current email address, while the username you intend to used in the Name, Email, and Username industries and click on the Update key inside Information area to truly save your settings.

(you can also change the UI Theme and Timezone to fit your needs and then press the Update button in the Preferences area to save your changes********)If you want. Grafana provides Dark and Light UI themes, plus a Default theme, which can be set to Dark automatically.

Finally, replace the password connected with your account by simply clicking the Change Password key at the end associated with web page. This can just take one to the Change password display screen.

Enter your present password, admin, to the Old Password industry and enter the password you may like to begin using to the New Password and Confirm Password industries.

Click Change Password to truly save the information that is new press Cancel to abandon your modifications.

From here, you will be came back towards User Profile web page in which you will see a box that is green the top of, right-hand part associated with display screen suggesting your User password changed.

Grafana change password successful

You've now guaranteed your account by changing the standard qualifications, therefore let us additionally be sure that no body can make a Grafana that is new account your authorization.

Step 4 — Disabling Grafana Registrations and Anonymous Access

Grafana provides choices that enable people to produce individual makes up by themselves and preview dashboards without registering. This could be a security problem as you're exposing Grafana on the internet. However, when Grafana isn't accessible via the internet or when working with publicly-available data, like service statuses, you might desire to enable these features. Therefore, it is important you are aware just how to configure Grafana to satisfy your requirements.

Start by starting Grafana's primary setup declare modifying.

  • sudo nano /etc/grafana/grafana.ini

Locate these allow_sign_up directive in [users] going:


# disable individual signup / enrollment
;allow_sign_up = real

Enabling this directive with true adds a Sign Up key towards login display screen, permitting users to join up by themselves and access Grafana.

Disabling this directive with false eliminates the Sign Up key and strengthens Grafana's protection and privacy.

uncomment this directive by removing the ; at the beginning of the line and then set the option to false.( unless you need to allow anonymous visitors to register themselves*********)


# disable individual signup / enrollment
allow_sign_up = false

Next, find these enabled directive in [auth.anonymous] going.


# enable access that is anonymous
;enabled = false

Setting enabled to true provides non-registered users usage of your dashboards; establishing this program to false restrictions dashboard usage of users just.

if you don't must enable anonymous usage of your dashboards, uncomment this directive by eliminating the ; at the start of the line and set the choice to false.


enabled = false

Save the file and leave your text editor.

To activate the modifications, restart Grafana.

  • sudo systemctl restart grafana-server

Verify that all things are working by checking Grafana's solution status.

  • sudo systemctl status grafana-server

Like prior to, the production should report that Grafana is active (operating). In case it isn't, review any messages that are terminal extra assistance.

Now, aim your online web browser to to validate that there's no Sign Up key which you cannot register without entering login qualifications.

If the thing is the Sign Up key or perhaps youare able to login anonymously, re-examine the steps that are preceding resolve the issue before continuing the tutorial.

At this aspect, Grafana is completely configured and prepared to be used. Optionally, it is possible to simplify the login procedure available company by authenticating through GitHub.

(Optional) action 5 — establishing a GitHub OAuth App

For an approach that is alternative signing in, you can configure Grafana to authenticate through GitHub, which provides login access to all members of authorized GitHub organizations. This can be particularly useful when you want to allow developers that are multiple collaborate and access metrics and never having to produce Grafana-specific qualifications.

Start by signing into a GitHub account connected with your business and navigate to your then GitHub profile web page at

Click on your own company's title under Organization settings inside navigation menu regarding the side that is left-hand of display screen.

GitHub Settings page

On the screen that is next you will see your Organization profile where you could alter settings such as your Organization display name, company Email, and company URL.

Because Grafana makes use of OAuth — an standard that is open giving remote third-parties usage of neighborhood resources — to authenticate users through GitHub, you will need to produce a brand new OAuth application within GitHub.

Click the OAuth Apps website link under Developer settings regarding the reduced, left-hand part associated with display screen.

GitHub Organization Settings

If that you do not curently have any OAuth applications connected with your business on GitHub, you will be told you can find No Organization applications that are owned************************). Otherwise, you will see a summary of the OAuth applications currently attached to your account.

Click the Register a software key to keep.

On the screen that is next you will fill out these information about your Grafana installation:

  • Application Name - this can help you differentiate your various OAuth applications from a single another.
  • Homepage URL - This informs GitHub how to locate Grafana.
  • Application Description - this gives a description of the OAuth application's function.
  • Application callback URL - here is the target in which users will once be sent effectively authenticated. For Grafana, this industry should be set to

Keep at heart that Grafana users signing in through GitHub will discover the values you joined in the 1st three fields that are preceding therefore make sure to enter one thing significant and appropriate.

whenever finished, the shape should look something such as:

GitHub Register OAuth Application

Click the green, Register application key.

You will now be rerouted to a web page containing the Client ID and Client Secret connected with your brand-new application that is OAuth. Make note of both values, them to Grafana's main configuration file to complete the setup.( because you will need to add*********)

GitHub Application Details

Warning: be sure to keep your Client ID and Client Secret in a protected and non-public location, simply because they might be utilized because the foundation of an assault.

With your GitHub OAuth application created, you are now willing to reconfigure Grafana.

(Optional) action 6 — Configuring Grafana as a GitHub OAuth App

To start, start the key Grafana setup file.

  • sudo nano /etc/grafana/grafana.ini

Locate the [auth.github] going, and uncomment this area by eliminating the ; at the start of every line, except ;team_ids=, which we will not be making use of within guide.

Then, configure Grafana to make use of GitHub together with your OAuth application's client_id and client_secret values.

  • Set enabled and allow_sign_up to real. This can allow GitHub Authentication and enable users associated with permitted company to produce reports by themselves. Remember that this environment differs versus allow_sign_up home under [users] which you changed in action 4.
  • Set client_id and client_secret towards values you have while producing your GitHub OAuth application.
  • Set allowed_organizations towards title of the company to make sure that only users of the company can subscribe and log into Grafana.

The complete setup should appear to be:


enabled = true
allow_sign_up = true
client_id = your_client_id_from_github
client_secret = your_client_secret_from_github
scopes = individual:email,read:org
auth_url =
token_url =
api_url =
;team_ids =
allowed_organizations = your_organization_name

You've now told Grafana every thing it requires to find out about GitHub, but to perform the setup, you will need to allow redirects behind a reverse proxy. This is accomplished by establishing a root_url value in [server] going.


root_url =

Save your setup and shut the file.

Then, restart Grafana to trigger the modifications.

  • sudo systemctl restart grafana-server

Lastly, verify your solution is ready to go.

  • sudo systemctl status grafana-server

If the production does not suggest your solution is active (operating), consult the messages that are on-screen more details.

Now, examine your authentication that is new system navigating to If you are already logged into Grafana, click on the small Grafana logo in the upper, left-hand corner of the screen, hover your mouse over your username, and click on Sign out in the menu that is secondary generally seems to the best of the title.

On the login web page, you will see a section that is new the initial Log in key which includes a GitHub key using the GitHub logo design.

Grafana Login page with GitHub

Click regarding the GitHub key become rerouted to GitHub, in which you will need to verify your intention to Authorize Grafana.

Click the green, Authorize your_github_organization key. The button reads, Authorize SharkTheSammy.( in this example*********)

Authorize with GitHub

(you, User not a member of one of the required organizations.

If you try to authenticate with a GitHub account that isn't a member of your approved organization, you'll get a Login Failed message telling*********)

If the GitHub account is an associate of the authorized company as well as your Grafana current email address fits your GitHub current email address, you'll be logged in together with your current Grafana account.

But, if a Grafana account does not currently occur the individual you logged in because, Grafana will generate a user that is new with Viewer permissions, making certain brand new users can just only utilize current dashboards.

To replace the standard permissions for brand new users, start the Grafana that is main configuration for modifying.

  • sudo nano /etc/grafana/grafana.ini

Locate the auto_assign_org_role directive in [users] going, and uncomment the environment by eliminating the ; at the start of the line.

Set the directive to at least one associated with values that are following*********)

  • Viewer — can just only utilize current dashboards
  • Editor — can alter utilize, alter, and include dashboards
  • Admin — has authorization to complete every thing


auto_assign_org_role = Viewer

Once you have conserved your modifications, shut the file and restart Grafana.

  • sudo systemctl restart grafana-server

Check the solution's status.

  • sudo systemctl status grafana-server

Like prior to, the status should read active (operating). If it does not, review the production for further directions.

At this aspect, you've got completely configured Grafana to permit users of the GitHub company to join up and make use of your Grafana installation.


In this guide you installed, configured, and guaranteed Grafana, and yourself discovered just how to allow users of the company to authenticate through GitHub.

To usage Grafana within a system-monitoring computer software stack, observe how to put in Prometheus on Ubuntu 16.04 and exactly how to include a Prometheus Dashboard to Grafana.

To expand your Grafana that is current installation begin to see the selection of formal and community-built dashboards.

And, for more information about making use of Grafana generally, begin to see the formal Grafana documents.

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